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L PaulingΟ Λάινους Καρλ Πόλινγκ[1] (Linus Carl Pauling, 28 Φεβρουαρίου 1901 - 19 Αυγούστου 1994)[2] ήταν Αμερικανός χημικός, βιοχημικός, ακτιβιστής, συγγραφέας και εκπαιδευτικός. Ήταν ένας από τους χημικούς του 20ού αιώνα με την μεγαλύτερη επιρροή και κατατάσσεται ανάμεσα στους σημαντικότερους επιστήμονες του 20ού αιώνα.[3][4] Ήταν ένας εκ των ιδρυτών των πεδίων της κβαντικής χημείας και της μοριακής βιολογίας.

Για την επιστημονική του δουλειά, ο Λάινους Πόλινγκ έλαβε το Νόμπελ Χημείας το 1954. Το 1962 για το ακτιβιστικό του έργο έλαβε το Νόμπελ Ειρήνης. Αυτό το γεγονός κάνει το Λάινους Πόλινγκ το μόνο άνθρωπο μέχρι σήμερα που έχει λάβει δύο βραβεία Νόμπελ μόνος του. Είναι επίσης ένα από τα τέσσερα άτομα που έχουν λάβει δύο βραβεία Νόμπελ· τα άλλα είναι η Μαρί Κιουρί, ο Τζον Μπαρντίν και ο Φρέντερικ Σάνγκερ. Ο Πόλινγκ είναι επίσης ένας από τους δύο ανθρώπους που έχουν κερδίσει βραβεία Νόμπελ σε διαφορετικά πεδία, με την Μαρί Κιουρί να έχει κερδίσει το Νόμπελ Χημείας και το Νόμπελ Φυσικής.



In 1973, with Arthur B. Robinson and another colleague, Pauling founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine in Menlo Park, California, which was soon renamed the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine. Pauling directed research on vitamin C, but also continued his theoretical work in chemistry and physics until his death. In his last years, he became especially interested in the possible role of vitamin C in preventing atherosclerosis and published three case reports on the use of lysine and vitamin C to relieve angina pectoris.

Pauling's work on vitamin C in his later years generated much controversy. He was first introduced to the concept of high-dose vitamin C by biochemist Irwin Stone in 1966. After becoming convinced of its worth, Pauling took 3 grams of vitamin C every day to prevent colds.[4] Excited by his own perceived results, he researched the clinical literature and published Vitamin C and the Common Cold in 1970. He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon Ewan Cameron in 1971 on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients. Cameron and Pauling wrote many technical papers and a popular book, Cancer and Vitamin C, that discussed their observations. Pauling made vitamin C popular with the public[136] and eventually published two studies of a group of 100 allegedly terminal patients that claimed vitamin C increased survival by as much as four times compared to untreated patients.

A re-evaluation of the claims in 1982 found that the patient groups were not actually comparable, with the vitamin C group being less sick on entry to the study, and judged to be "terminal" much earlier than the comparison group. Later clinical trials conducted by the Mayo Clinic also concluded that high-dose (10,000 mg) vitamin C was no better than placebo at treating cancer and that there was no benefit to high-dose vitamin C. The failure of the clinical trials to demonstrate any benefit resulted in the conclusion that vitamin C was not effective in treating cancer; the medical establishment concluding that his claims that vitamin C could prevent colds or treat cancer were quackery. Pauling denounced the conclusions of these studies and handling of the final study as "fraud and deliberate misrepresentation", and criticized the studies for using oral, rather than intravenous vitamin C] (which was the dosing method used for the first ten days of Pauling's original study). Pauling also criticised the Mayo clinic studies because the controls were taking vitamin C during the trial, and because the duration of the treatment with vitamin C was short; Pauling advocated continued high dose vitamin C for the rest of the cancer patient's life whereas the Mayo clinic patients in the second trial were treated with vitamin C for a median of 2.5 months. The results were publicly debated at length with considerable acrimony between Pauling and Cameron, and Moertel (the lead author of the Mayo Clinic studies), with accusations of misconduct and scientific incompetence on both sides.

Ultimately the negative findings of the Mayo Clinic studies ended general interest in vitamin C as a treatment for cancer. Despite this, Pauling continued to promote vitamin C for treating cancer and the common cold, working with The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential to use vitamin C in the treatment of brain-injured children.[148] He later collaborated with the Canadian physician Abram Hoffer on a micronutrient regime, including high-dose vitamin C, as adjunctive cancer therapy.[149] A 2009 review also noted differences between the studies, such as the Mayo clinic not using intravenous Vitamin C, and suggested further studies into the role of vitamin C when given intravenously. Currently, the available evidence does not support a role for high dose vitamin C in the treatment of cancer.

An old friend of Pauling's said of him, "When he was right, which was more often than not, he was very, very right. But when he was wrong, which he also was from time to time, there was no way to get him to see it."



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Pauling



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